Standards and Guidance for Developing Food Fortification Programs


  • World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on fortifying maize flour with iron, vitamin A, zinc and the following B vitamins: folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine riboflavin,  thiamine, and vitamin B12.
  • WHO guidance for fortifying rice includes recommendations to fortify rice with iron, vitamin A, and folic acid  as a public health strategy in settings where rice is a staple food.
  • Proposed nutrient and nutrient levels for rice fortification based on the per capita availability of rice. Nutrients included are folic acid, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and zinc.
  • WHO wheat flour fortification guidance for nutrients and nutrient levels for folic acid, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and zinc, though vitamin A is more commonly added to oil or sugar. Flour fortification is recommended “as a preventive approach to improve the micronutrient status of a population over time.” Recommendations are available in Arabic, Chinese, English, Française, Russian, and Español. Unofficial translations are available in Mongolian, Português, and Vietnamese.
  • The Food Fortification Formulator is a series of spreadsheets that include dietary parameters for different gender and age groups, the price of commonly used fortificants, and the usual stability of vitamins and minerals during production, distribution, and marketing of fortified foods. The Formulator can be adjusted to different consumption patterns and tailored to each country’s specific conditions to generate suggested levels of addition for each fortificant. It is designed to assist in determining the potential additional intakes of vitamins and minerals for populations following efficacious and safety comparisons; the costs associated with food fortification programs; the fortification levels that can be used as technical specifications in the factories, national standards and regulations; and the amount of fortificant to be added in the micronutrient premixes. Directions for using it being on page 19 of this document. Contact FFI at for more information.


  • Regulatory Monitoring of National Food Fortification Programs: A Policy Guidance Document. The document proposes a standardized, feasible approach to determining fortification compliance and offers country-specific examples for addressing common, ongoing challenges faced by public and private sectors. The document is available in English, Español, Française, and Russian.

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Top Photo Credit: @David Snyder for CDC Foundation

Global Recommendations

World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for standards to consider in wheat flour fortification are available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. The recommendations are also available in:

Also see WHO guidelines for fortification of maize flour and corn meal.

For rice fortification, see Proposing Nutrients and Nutrient Levels.