In this region, Fiji and Australia have reported improvements in nutrient status among the population due to wheat flour fortification.

In Fiji, the prevalence of iron, folate and zinc deficiency significantly reduced after wheat flour was fortified, according to a 2010 report from the National Food and Nutrition Centre. The most change was in the prevalence of zinc deficiency which dropped from 39.3% before fortification to 0% after fortification. Also, anemia in women of child bearing age improved from 40.3% before fortification to 27.6% after fortification.

In Australia, wheat flour fortification led to a 77% reduction in the prevalence of low serum folate levels, according to a 2011 study.

Rice is the main cereal grain consumed in many of these countries. See a list of rice fortification resources here. Rice is frequently imported by countries in this region as well. See this worksheet to help determine if requiring fortification of rice imports is feasible.

Fuel and food prices, growing populations, and increasing urbanization are changing the diets of people throughout this region. These changing patterns very often result in vitamin and mineral deficiencies as less land is available for local production of fruits and vegetables. Fortifying staple foods has the potential to impact millions of people here. 

Fortification Legislation Status by Country and Grain

Click on any of the column headings to sort the list by Country, Wheat Flour, Maize Flour, or Rice.

Country Wheat Flour Maize Flour Rice
American SamoaTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Christmas IslandTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Cocos (Keeling) IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Cook Islands------
French PolynesiaTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Marshall Islands------
Micronesia, Federated States of------
New CaledoniaTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
New Zealand------
Norfolk IslandTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Northern Mariana IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Papua New Guinea----Mandatory
Pitcairn IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Solomon IslandsMandatory----
Wake IslandTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Wallis and Futuna IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory

Pacific - Fortification Status

Our definition of the legislative status is:

  • Mandatory: Country has legislation that has the effect of mandating fortification of one or more types of wheat or maize flour or rice with at least iron or folic acid.
  • Voluntary: Country has standard for fortification, but fortification is not mandatory.
  • Territory: An area under the jurisdiction of another country, according to the 2015 World Almanac. We assume the territory follows the food regulations of the governing body and will not have its own fortification legislation. See a list of territories.
  • Dashes in the table below indicate that no information is available. Please send information to

Most fortification legislation mandates address only the most commonly consumed grain in the country. Click on the country name in the table above to see the amount of each grain available in the food supply, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.



Asia-Pacific Conference on Human Genetics

08 November 2017

Samoa Consultations

15 March 2011

Fiji Food Security Meeting

04 February 2011


2017 Annual Report
21 March 2018

Fortification for the Poorest of the Urban Poor
06 June 2017

Flour Fortification Resulted in 35,500 Healthier Babies Last Year
15 July 2016

2015 Year in Review
23 March 2016

Systematic Review Yields Recommendations for Flour Fortification Programs
04 October 2015

Regional Resources

Fortifying with folic acid lowers homocysteine among elderly Australians

Potential for rice and wheat flour fortification in Western Pacific region

Impact of iron fortified flour in child bearing age women in Fiji - 2010 report