Asia Region

Viet Nam became the most recent country to mandate wheat flour fortification when the Prime Minister signed a decree in January 2016. The legislation requires fortification of salt and oil as well as wheat flour.

Wheat flour consumption is increasing as consumption of breads and noodles, and particularly instant noodles, increases. This is causing more countries in this region to consider mandatory wheat flour fortification programs.

To determine consumer acceptability of foods made with fortified wheat flour, a series of tests was conducted on 15 different kinds of noodles and breads commonly eaten in Asia. The foods were fortified with at least iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 at levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Some foods were also fortified with vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and zinc. The results, published in 2011, show that:

  • Fortified foods were acceptable in all cases
  • Several iron compounds could be used successfully in these foods
  • Nutrients appear to be retained throughout the food preparation process 

At the same time, rice remains the primary staple food in most countries here. Consequently we support the fortification of both rice and wheat flour throughout Asia.

Fortified rice is available through social safety net programs in Bangladesh, a voluntary market-based approach in Myanmar, a workplace benefit program in Singapore, and a pilot project in Viet Nam. Rice fortification is mandatory in the Philippines and Papua New Guinea.

Fortification Legislation Status by Country and Grain

Click on any of the column headings to sort the list by Country, Wheat Flour, Maize Flour, or Rice.

Country Wheat Flour Maize Flour Rice
Brunei Darussalam------
Korea, Democratic People's Republic------
Korea, Republic of------
Lao People's Democratic Republic------
Sri Lanka------
Viet NamMandatory----

Asia - Fortification Status

Our definition of the legislative status is:

  • Mandatory: Legislation has the effect of mandating fortification of one or more types of wheat flour, maize flour, and /or rice with at least iron or folic acid.
  • Voluntary: Country has standard for fortification, but fortification is not mandatory.
  • Dashes in the table below indicate that no information is available. Please send information to

Most fortification legislation mandates address only the most commonly consumed grain in the country. Click on the country name in the table above to see the amount of each grain available in the food supply, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.



Asia-Pacific Conference on Human Genetics

08 November 2017

Scaling Up Rice Fortification in Asia

16 September 2014

Southeast Asia IAOM District Conference and Expo

08 October 2013

IAOM Southeast Asia 2012

08 October 2012


30 October 2011


Greg Harvey, Chief Executive Officer of Interflour Group based in Singapore #FFI15
24 October 2017

Victor Temple, Professor of Biochemistry in Papua New Guinea #FFI15
24 October 2017

Do Hong Phuong, Nutrition Policy Specialist at UNICEF, Viet Nam #FFI15
24 October 2017

Fortification for the Poorest of the Urban Poor
06 June 2017

Flour Fortification Resulted in 35,500 Healthier Babies Last Year
15 July 2016

Regional Resources

Accelerated Shelf Life Evaluation of Instant Noodles Made with Fortified Flour

Monitoring of Flour Fortification: The Case of Indonesia

Indonesia study recommends using a more bioavailable form of iron in wheat flour fortification

Asian Wheat Flour Products: Impact of Flour Fortification on Organoleptic Properties

Iodizing salt and fortifying flour: The best investment for Viet Nam's national economic development

Viet Nam report on deficiencies of iodine, vitamin A, iron, folic acid, and zinc

Viet Nam Policy Brief in Vietnamese

Fortification recommendations in Vietnamese

Pakistan food fortification scoping study

Regulatory monitoring systems of fortified salt and wheat flour in selected ASEAN countries

Meeting on Regulatory Monitoring of Salt and Flour Fortification Programmes in Asia

Meeting report on implementation in Asia of the recommendations on wheat flour fortification

Frequently asked questions about rice fortification

Fortification recommendations in Mongolian

Material in Chinese