Costa Rica and the United States are leaders in global grain fortification as they are the only countries with legislative requirements to fortify wheat flour, maize flour and rice.

Most countries in the Americas began wheat flour fortification several decades ago. We encourage these countries to review their standards. The levels of vitamins and minerals may need to be revised, the iron compound used may need to be changed, or additional nutrients may need to be added to create a desired public health impact.

Maize flour fortification is mandatory in Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela and most countries in Central America. Many maize products are fortified in the United States, and a petition has been filed with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for corn masa flour to be fortified there as well.

Fortified rice is available in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and the United States. In 2009, Nicaragua passed a government resolution that all rice consumed in country should be fortified. Venezuela also requires fortification of rice flour.

The countries in this region and the legislative status of grain fortification are listed below. The Caribbean island nations without wheat flour mills have a joint agreement to import fortified flour. 

Fortification Legislation Status by Country and Grain

Click on any of the column headings to sort the list by Country, Wheat Flour, Maize Flour, or Rice.

Country Wheat Flour Maize Flour Rice
Antigua and BarbudaMandatory----
Bolivia, Plurinational State ofMandatory----
British Virgin IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Cayman IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Costa RicaMandatoryMandatoryMandatory
Dominican RepublicMandatoryVoluntary--
El SalvadorMandatoryMandatory--
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)TerritoryTerritoryTerritory
French GuianaTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Netherlands AntillesTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Puerto RicoTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Saint Kitts and NevisMandatory----
Saint LuciaMandatory----
Saint Pierre and MiquelonTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesMandatory----
Trinidad and TobagoMandatory----
Turks and Caicos IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
United States Virgin IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
United States of AmericaMandatoryMandatoryMandatory
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofMandatoryMandatoryVoluntary

Americas - Fortification Status

Our definition of the legislative status is:

  • Mandatory: Legislation has the effect of mandating fortification of one or more types of wheat or maize flour or rice with at least iron or folic acid.
  • Voluntary: Country has standard for fortification, but fortification is not mandatory.
  • Territory: An area under the jurisdiction of another country, according to the 2015 World Almanac. We assume the territory follows the food regulations of the governing body and will not have its own fortification legislation. See a list of territories.
  • Dashes in the table below indicate that no information is available. Please send information to

Most fortification legislation mandates address only the most commonly consumed grain in the country. Click on the country name in the table above to see the amount of each grain available in the food supply, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.



International Conference on Birth Defects and Disabilities in the Developing World

08 November 2017

Public Health Grand Rounds

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International Congress of Nutrition

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Risk of Excessive Intake of Vitamins and Minerals Delivered Through Public Health Interventions

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Micronutrient Forum

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2017 Annual Report
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Godfrey Oakley, Director, Center for Spina Bifida Prevention at Emory University #FFI15
24 October 2017

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24 October 2017

Regional Resources

Successful Fortification: Lessons Learned in Chile, Costa Rica, and Guatemala

Resumen de las Evidencias y Situación Actual de la Fortificación del Arroz y Lecciones Aprendidas de la Fortificación de Granos

Colombia achieves moderate coverage of fortified rice, but unproven technology makes impact questionable

Dinámicas de los sectores del arroz para lograr su fortificación: La experiencia de Colombia y sus lecciones

Monitoring of Flour Fortification: The Case of Chile

La fortificación del grano de arroz

An assessment of Dominican Republic's wheat flour fortification program

Informe que resume la situación actual con el monitoreo de la fortificación de harina de trigo que se efectúa en la República Dominicana.

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