Costa Rica and the United States are leaders in global grain fortification as they are the only countries with legislative requirements to fortify wheat flour, maize flour and rice.
Most countries in the Americas began wheat flour fortification several decades ago. We encourage these countries to review their standards. The levels of vitamins and minerals may need to be revised, the iron compound used may need to be changed, or additional nutrients may need to be added to create a desired public health impact.
Maize flour fortification is mandatory in Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela and most countries in Central America. Many maize products are fortified in the United States, and a petition has been filed with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for corn masa flour to be fortified there as well.
Fortified rice is available in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and the United States. In 2009, Nicaragua passed a government resolution that all rice consumed in country should be fortified. Venezuela also requires fortification of rice flour.
The countries in this region and the legislative status of grain fortification are listed below. The Caribbean island nations without wheat flour mills have a joint agreement to import fortified flour.