Americas

Costa Rica and the United States are leaders in global grain fortification as they are the only countries with legislative requirements to fortify wheat flour, maize flour and rice.

Most countries in the Americas began wheat flour fortification several decades ago. We encourage these countries to review their standards. The levels of vitamins and minerals may need to be revised, the iron compound used may need to be changed, or additional nutrients may need to be added to create a desired public health impact.

Maize flour fortification is mandatory in Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela and most countries in Central America. Many maize products are fortified in the United States, and a petition has been filed with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for corn masa flour to be fortified there as well.

Fortified rice is available in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and the United States. In 2009, Nicaragua passed a government resolution that all rice consumed in country should be fortified. Venezuela also requires fortification of rice flour.

The countries in this region and the legislative status of grain fortification are listed below. The Caribbean island nations without wheat flour mills have a joint agreement to import fortified flour. 

Fortification Legislation Status by Country and Grain

Click on any of the column headings to sort the list by Country, Wheat Flour, Maize Flour, or Rice.

Country Wheat Flour Maize Flour Rice
AnguillaTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Antigua and BarbudaMandatory----
ArgentinaMandatory----
ArubaTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
BahamasMandatory----
BarbadosMandatory----
BelizeMandatory----
BermudaTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Bolivia, Plurinational State ofMandatory----
BrazilMandatoryMandatoryVoluntary
British Virgin IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
CanadaMandatory----
Cayman IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
ChileMandatory----
ColombiaMandatory--No Fortification
Costa RicaMandatoryMandatoryMandatory
CubaMandatory----
DominicaMandatory----
Dominican RepublicMandatory--No Fortification
EcuadorMandatory----
El SalvadorMandatoryMandatory--
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)TerritoryTerritoryTerritory
French GuianaTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
GrenadaMandatory----
GuadeloupeTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
GuatemalaMandatoryMandatory--
GuyanaMandatory----
HaitiMandatory----
HondurasMandatory----
JamaicaMandatory----
MartiniqueTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
MexicoMandatoryMandatory--
MontserratTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Netherlands AntillesTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
NicaraguaMandatoryVoluntaryMandatory
PanamaMandatory--Mandatory
ParaguayMandatory----
PeruMandatory----
Puerto RicoTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Saint Kitts and NevisMandatory----
Saint LuciaMandatory----
Saint Pierre and MiquelonTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesMandatory----
SurinameMandatory----
Trinidad and TobagoMandatory----
Turks and Caicos IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
United States Virgin IslandsTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
United States of AmericaMandatoryMandatoryMandatory
UruguayMandatory----
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofMandatoryMandatory--

Americas - Fortification Status

Our definition of the legislative status is:

  • Mandatory: Legislation has the effect of mandating fortification of one or more types of wheat or maize flour or rice with at least iron or folic acid.
  • Planning: There is written evidence that the government is acting to prepare, draft, and/or move legislation for mandatory fortification.
  • Voluntary: Most countries allow voluntary fortification. We use this category if at least 50 % of the industrially-milled wheat or maize flour or rice produced in the country is being fortified through voluntary efforts.
  • Territory: An area under the jurisdiction of another country, according to the 2015 World Almanac. We assume the territory follows the food regulations of the governing body and will not have its own fortification legislation. See a list of territories.
  • No fortification: None of the above.
  • Dashes in the table below indicate that no information is available. Please send information to info@ffinetwork.org

Most fortification legislation mandates address only the most commonly consumed grain in the country. Click on the country name in the table above to see the amount of each grain available in the food supply, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Contact

Events

Micronutrient Forum

24 October 2016

Rice Fortification in Latin America

09 August 2016

Society for Latin American Nutrition Conference

08 November 2015

Congreso Internacional de Nutrición Dr. José María Bengoa

26 October 2013

XV CONGRESO COLOMBIANO DE NUTRICIÓN Y DIETÉTICA

23 October 2013

News

2016 Year in Review
02 April 2017

World Birth Defect Day 2017
03 March 2017

Flour Fortification Resulted in 35,500 Healthier Babies Last Year
15 July 2016

US Allows Corn Masa Flour to be Fortified with Folic Acid
14 April 2016

2015 Year in Review
23 March 2016

Regional Resources

Resumen de las Evidencias y Situación Actual de la Fortificación del Arroz y Desafíos en la Fortificación de Granos

Colombia achieves moderate coverage of fortified rice, but unproven technology makes impact questionable

Dinámicas de los sectores del arroz para lograr su fortificación: La experiencia de Colombia y sus lecciones

Monitoring of Flour Fortification: The Case of Chile

La fortificación del grano de arroz

An assessment of Dominican Republic's wheat flour fortification program

Informe que resume la situación actual con el monitoreo de la fortificación de harina de trigo que se efectúa en la República Dominicana.

Materiales disponibles en español