Africa

Fortification is making tremendous progress in Africa. Countries often fortify wheat and maize flour as well as cooking oil, sugar, and salt as part of their comprehensive nutrition strategy. See this story and photos for a celebration of Africa's progress.

Though maize is the primary cereal consumed in many countries in Africa, less than 30% of the industrially milled maize on the continent is fortified. In 2016, representatives of government, grain milling, and development sectors from 14 countries in Africa met to deliberate the need to scale up maize flour fortification programs. Their work resulted in an Africa Maize Fortification Strategy for 2017-2026.

Nineteen countries in Africa have more than 75 grams of rice per person per day available for human consumption. In 12 of these countries, fortification of rice imports represents an opportunity to improve nutrition. Currently Mali has a voluntary, market based rice fortification program. See more information on the potential for rice fortification in Africa.

As Africa experiences a rising trend in economic growth and emerging common markets, regional bodies are harmonizing fortification standards. This facilitates trade across country borders. This has proven particularly effective in West Africa as multiple partners work together to "Fortify West Africa." See related news in English and French.

African leaders are developing national and regional standards in conjunction with World Health Organization recommendations for wheat and maize flour fortification. The private sector is being engaged to embrace flour fortification with essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, folic acid and other B vitamins.

Smarter Futures is a public-private-civic partnership which provides fortification technical support and training for flour millers, government food control staff, and other stakeholders in Africa. The Smarter Futures partnership includes the Food Fortification Initiative, AkzoNobel, Helen Keller International, the International Federation for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus (IF), and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands.

Long-term engagement and collaboration among a broad-based coalition of public, private, and civic partners committed to multiple nutritional interventions is essential for Africa to improve public nutrition and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

South Africa and Nigeria were the first two countries in Africa to fortify flour. A situational analysis in Nigeria shows that regulatory monitoring is needed to help ensure that fortification reaches it maximum potential.

Fortification Legislation Status by Country and Grain

Click on any of the column headings to sort the list by Country, Wheat Flour, Maize Flour, or Rice.

Country Wheat Flour Maize Flour Rice
Algeria------
Angola------
BeninMandatory----
Botswana------
British Indian Ocean TerritoryTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Burkina FasoMandatory----
BurundiMandatoryMandatory--
CameroonMandatory----
Cape VerdeMandatory----
Central African Republic------
Chad------
Comoros------
CongoMandatory----
Cote d'IvoireMandatory----
Democratic Republic of the Congo------
DjiboutiMandatory----
EgyptMandatory----
Equatorial Guinea------
Eritrea------
Ethiopia------
Gabon------
Gambia------
GhanaMandatory----
GuineaMandatory----
Guinea-Bissau------
KenyaMandatoryMandatory--
Lesotho------
LiberiaMandatory----
Libya------
Madagascar------
MalawiMandatoryMandatory--
MaliMandatory----
MauritaniaMandatory----
Mauritius------
MayotteTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
MoroccoMandatory----
MozambiqueMandatoryMandatory--
Namibia------
NigerMandatory----
NigeriaMandatoryMandatory--
ReunionTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Rwanda--Voluntary--
Saint HelenaTerritoryTerritoryTerritory
Sao Tome and Principe------
SenegalMandatory----
Seychelles------
Sierra LeoneMandatory----
Somalia------
South AfricaMandatoryMandatory--
South Sudan------
Sudan------
Swaziland------
Tanzania, United Republic ofMandatoryMandatory--
TogoMandatory----
Tunisia------
UgandaMandatoryMandatory--
Western Sahara------
Zambia------
ZimbabweMandatoryMandatory--

Africa - Fortification Status

Our definition of legislative status is:

  • Mandatory: Legislation has the effect of mandating fortification of one or more type of wheat flour, maize flour, and/or rice with at least iron or folic acid.
  • Voluntary: Country has standard for fortification, but fortification is not mandatory.
  • Territory: An area under the jurisdiction of another country, according to the 2015 World Almanac. We assume the territory follows the food regulations of the governing body and will not have its own fortification legislation. See a list of territories.
  • Dashes in the table below indicate that no information is available. Please send information to info@ffinetwork.org

Most fortification legislation mandates address only the most commonly consumed grain in the country. Click on the country name in the table above to see the amount of each grain available in the food supply, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Contact

Events

Sustainable Food Systems for Healthy Diets and Improved Nutrition in the Near East and North Africa

11 December 2017

Rice Fortification - An Opportunity To Improve Nutrition in West Africa

27 November 2017

28th Annual IAOM MEA Conference and Expo

22 October 2017

Training workshop: Best practices of wheat flour fortification

18 October 2017

Eastern and Southern Africa Training of Trainers

24 July 2017

News

Abbubakar Bakhresa, Executive Director of Bakhresa & Co Ltd in Tanzania #FFI15
24 October 2017

Terry Wefwafwa, retired from civil service in Kenya #FFI15
24 October 2017

Eduarda Mungoi, Food Scientist and Food Safety Expert in Mozambique #FFI15
24 October 2017

Interview with Kenyan mother of young adult with spina bifida
14 August 2017

Fortification for the Poorest of the Urban Poor
06 June 2017

Regional Resources

Cameroon reports increases in iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12 status

Africa Maize Fortification Strategy 2017-2026

Celebration of Africa's Efforts in Flour Fortification

Monitoring of Flour Fortification: The Case of South Africa

FORTIMAS: An approach for tracking population coverage of fortification programs

Fortify Grains to Prevent Neural Tube Defects in Africa: Advocacy Material

Maize flour fortification in Africa is economically feasible and would reduce vitamin and mineral deficiencies

South Africa surveys reveal improvement in iron and vitamin A status of women of reproductive age as well as children

Baking trials show acceptability of iron fortified foods

Smarter Futures partnership provides technical support and training in Africa

Material in French

Fortification recommendations in Portuguese