Globally 87 countries have legislation to mandate fortification of at least one industrially milled cereal grain. Of these, 86 countries fortify wheat flour alone or in combination with other grains. The map below reflects the legislation.
- Red countries (67) have legislation for wheat flour
- Green countries (14) have legislation for wheat flour and maize flour
- Orange countries (3) have legislation for wheat flour and rice
- Blue countries (2) have legislation for wheat flour, maize flour, and rice
- Yellow country (1) has legislation for rice
See this spreadsheet of countries with mandatory legislation that can be sorted by grain and country.
In addition, eight countries fortify more than half of their industrially milled wheat flour through voluntary efforts. These include Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Lesotho, Namibia, Qatar, Swaziland, and the United Arab Emirates. Lesotho and Namibia also voluntarily fortify more than 50% of their industrially milled maize flour.
Click on the blue boxes for maps reflecting each grain's availability and legislation.
For country details, see the Country Profiles.
We define mandatory as legislation that has the effect of requiring fortification with at least iron or folic acid. Most countries permit fortification. We only list a country as voluntary if at least 50% of the industrially-milled grain is fortified through voluntary efforts.
We estimate that 34.1% of the world's industrially milled wheat flour, 57.0% of industrially milled maize flour, and 0.1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with at least iron or folic acid through these mandatory and voluntary efforts. See the 2016 Annual Report for an explanation of the calculation.
Costa Rica and the United States are the only countries that mandate fortification of all three grains. Papua New Guinea is the only country that requires only rice fortification.
Currently 86 countries require fortification of industrially milled wheat flour. All these require at least iron and folic acid except Australia which does not include iron, and Congo, the Philippines, Venezuela, Viet Nam, and the United Kingdom which do not include folic acid. Papua New Guinea also omits folic acid from its rice fortification.
Eight countries (Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Lesotho, Namibia, Qatar, Swaziland, and United Arab Emirates) fortify at least half their industrially milled wheat flour through voluntary efforts. Also, three countries (Lesotho, Namibia, and Nicaragua) voluntarily fortify at least half their maize flour.
Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic have large-scale rice fortification programs though rice fortification is not mandatory throughout these countries.
We rely on information from partners for this data. Please send an e-mail to email@example.com to provide corrected or missing information. We can also provide you with data in the country profiles in a spreadsheet on a regional or global basis. Send a request telling us the specific information you need to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mandatory Cereal Grain Legislation - March 2017