Global Progress of Industrially Milled Cereal Grains
Globally 82 countries have legislation to mandate fortification of at least one industrially milled cereal grain. Of these, 81 countries fortify wheat flour alone or in combination with other grains. One country - Papua New Guinea - has a mandate only for rice fortification.
See this spreadsheet of countries with mandatory legislation for each grain.
For regional information:
Use the Global Fortification Data Exchange (GFDx) to see which nutrients are in country standards for grains as well as edible oil and salt. Use these directions:
- On the right panel, select the food vehicle of interest and the nutrients of interest.
- Below the GFDx map is a table with information used to populate the map. Below the table, scroll over the “Download” button and click on “CSV” to download a file with the selected data.
Note: If a country has multiple foods that include the nutrient in the standard, the country will appear multiple times in the downloaded file.
For country details, see the Country Profiles.
We define mandatory as legislation that has the effect of requiring fortification with at least iron or folic acid. Most countries permit fortification. Voluntary means the country has a standard for fortification, but fortification is not mandatory.
Nine countries fortify more than half of their industrially milled wheat flour even though it is not mandatory. These include Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Lesotho, Namibia, Qatar, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, and the United Arab Emirates. Three countries - Lesotho, Namibia, and Nicaragua - fortify more than 50% of their industrially milled maize flour even though it is not mandatory.
Brazil, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic have large-scale rice fortification programs though rice fortification is not mandatory throughout these countries.
We estimate that 31.3% of the world's industrially milled wheat flour, 64.6% of industrially milled maize flour, and 0.8% of industrially milled rice is fortified with at least iron or folic acid through these mandatory and voluntary efforts. See the 2017 Annual Report for an explanation of the calculation.
We rely on information from partners for this data. Please send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org to provide corrected or missing information. We can also provide you with data in the country profiles in a spreadsheet on a regional or global basis. Send a request telling us the specific information you need to email@example.com.
Mandatory Cereal Grain Fortification Legislation - February 2019
The map above reflects the legislation by grain or combination of grains as follows:
- 61 red countries have legislation for wheat flour alone
- 14 green countries have legislation for wheat flour and maize flour
- 4 orange countries have legislation for wheat flour and rice (Nicaragua, Panama, Philippines, Solomon Islands)
- 2 blue countries have legislation for wheat flour, maize flour, and rice (Costa Rica and the United States)
- 1 yellow country has legislation for rice alone (Papua New Guinea)