Country Profile - Canada

Region: Americas

Population: 37,074,562

Percent of population in urban areas: 81.4

Source: Population figures from the United Nation Population Division

Grain Production, Imports, Exports (metric tons), and Availability (grams/capita/day)

  Domestic Production Grain Imports Grain Exports Flour Imports Flour Exports Available in food supply
Wheat 37,529,600 46,138 19,808,018 122,692 166,089 233
Maize 14,193,800 887,953 1,765,934 52,273 37,374 52
Rice 0 514,125 4,925 0 0 35

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations using 2013 data, the last year with all data available in March 2018

Notes: Rice production is paddy rice. Import and export figures include husked and milled rice.

Legislation, Milling Industry, and Fortification

  Legislation Number of industrial mills (>20 metric tons/day) % flour/rice produced in industrial mills % industrially milled flour/rice that is fortified
Wheat Mandatory 48 100 100
Maize None 0 0
Rice None 0 0

Source: FFI database. See how we got this information.

Nutrients Added Through Fortification (parts per million)

  Minerals B Vitamins Vitamin A
  Iron Type of Iron Zinc Folic Acid B12 Niacin Riboflavin Thiamin
Wheat 44 Ferrous Citrate, Ferrous Fumarate, Ferrous Gluconate, Ferrous Glycinate, Ferrous Lactate, Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Ammonium Citrate, Ferric Citrate, Ferric Pyrophosphate, Iron Pyrophosphate, Reduced Iron, Electrolytic Iron, Carbonyl Iron, Ferric Phosphate, Ferric Orthophosphate, Iron Phosphate, Sodium Iron Pyrophosphate, Sodium Ferric Pyrophosphate, Sodium Ferric Diphosphate, Ferric Saccharate 1.5 53 4 6.4
Maize
Rice

Source: FFI database. See how we got this information.

Neural Tube Defects, Anemia Data, and Zinc Intake

Neural tube defects per 10,000 births1 % Anemia in non-pregnant women of reproductive age2 % Anemia in pre-school children3 % Population at risk of inadequate zinc intake4
7 16 14 8

1Source: Hannah Blencowe, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Personal communication. United Kingdom. 2015.

Note: This figure may not include pregnancy loss or terminations of pregnancies due to pre-natal diagnosis of a neural tube defect. With all folic acid interventions in place, the birth prevalence of neural tube defects would be about 6 per 10,000.

2Source: - World Health Organization. The global prevalence of anemia in 2011. Switzerland. 2015.

Note: Anemia can be caused by many things. Fortifying flour and rice can reduce the risk of anemia caused by nutritional deficiencies. The classification of anemia as a public health problem, according to the World Health Organization, Global Prevalence of Anemia in 2011, is:

≤4.9% No public health problem
5.0-19.9% Mild public health problem
20.0-39.9% Moderate public health problem
≥40.0% Severe public health problem

3Source: - World Health Organization. The global prevalence of anemia in 2011. Switzerland. 2015.

Note: Pre-school children are usually defined as ages 6-59 months.

4Source: - Wessells KR, Brown KH. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting. United States of America. 2012.

Note: Zinc is needed for optimal child health and physical growth and normal pregnancy outcomes. If the probability of inadequate zinc intake is greater than 25%, it is considered an elevated public health concern, according to Conclusions of the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG Interagency Meeting on Zinc Status Indicators.