Country Profile - Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of

Region: Americas

Population: 30,276,000

Percent of population in urban areas: 89

Source: Population figures from the United Nation Population Division

Grain Production, Imports, Exports (metric tons), and Availability (grams/capita/day)

  Domestic Production Grain Imports Grain Exports Flour Imports Flour Exports Available in food supply
Wheat 161 1,470,536 0 1,538,476 148 135
Maize 2,457,263 2,394,197 67 2,396,137 67 151
Rice 1,084,012 464,050 0 477,976 0 64

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations using 2013 data, the last year with all data available.

Notes: Rice production is paddy rice. Import and export figures include husked and milled rice.

Legislation, Milling Industry, and Fortification

  Legislation Number of industrial mills (>20 metric tons/day) % flour/rice produced in industrial mills % industrially milled flour/rice that is fortified
Wheat Mandatory 10 92 100
Maize Mandatory 0 0
Rice 0 0

Source: FFI database. See how we got this information.

Nutrients Added Through Fortification (parts per million)

  Minerals B Vitamins Vitamin A
  Iron Type of Iron Zinc Folic Acid B12 Niacin Riboflavin Thiamin
Wheat 20 Ferrous Fumarate 20 2 1.5
Maize 20 - 30 Multiple Compounds Allowed 51 1.6-4.0 2.80
Rice

Source: FFI database. See how we got this information.

Neural Tube Defects, Anemia Data, and Zinc Intake

Neural tube defects per 10,000 births1 % Anemia in non-pregnant women of reproductive age2 % Anemia in pre-school children3 % Population at risk of inadequate zinc intake4
20 22 32 15.4

1Source: Castilla et al., ECLAMC data from 3 hospitals between 2000 and 2001.

Note: This figure may not include pregnancy loss or terminations of pregnancies due to pre-natal diagnosis of a neural tube defect. With all folic acid interventions in place, the birth prevalence of neural tube defects would be about 6 per 10,000. Contact us at info@ffinetwork.org to see if information on neural tube birth defects is available on a city or regional level.

2Source: - WHO. The global prevalence of anemia in 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization: 2015.

Note: Anemia can be caused by many things. Fortifying flour and rice can reduce the risk of anemia caused by nutritional deficiencies. The classification of anemia as a public health problem, according to the World Health Organization, Global Prevalence of Anemia in 2011, is:

≤4.9% No public health problem
5.0-19.9% Mild public health problem
20.0-39.9% Moderate public health problem
≥40.0% Severe public health problem

3Source: - WHO. The global prevalence of anemia in 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization: 2015.

Note: Pre-school children are usually defined as ages 6-59 months.

4Source: - Wessells KR, Brown KH. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting. PloS One 2012; 7: e50568.

Note: Zinc is needed for optimal child health and physical growth and normal pregnancy outcomes. If the probability of inadequate zinc intake is greater than 25%, it is considered an elevated public health concern, according to Conclusions of the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG Interagency Meeting on Zinc Status Indicators.