Country Profile - United States of America

Region: Americas

Population: 317,136,000

Percent of population in urban areas: 81

Source: Population figures from the United Nation Population Division

Grain Production, Imports, Exports (metric tons), and Availability (grams/capita/day)

  Domestic Production Grain Imports Grain Exports Flour Imports Flour Exports Available in food supply
Wheat 58,104,610 3,386,604 33,198,288 5,491,059 34,691,351 220
Maize 351,271,870 3,309,863 24,178,452 3,595,030 24,655,355 34
Rice 8,616,120 653,927 3,183,974 923,226 3,522,491 19

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations using 2013 data, the last year with all data available.

Notes: Rice production is paddy rice. Import and export figures include husked and milled rice.

Legislation, Milling Industry, and Fortification

  Legislation Number of industrial mills (>20 metric tons/day) % flour/rice produced in industrial mills % industrially milled flour/rice that is fortified
Wheat Mandatory 168 99 92
Maize Mandatory 48 0 0
Rice Mandatory 49 100 40

Source: FFI database. See how we got this information.

Nutrients Added Through Fortification (parts per million)

  Minerals B Vitamins Vitamin A
  Iron Type of Iron Zinc Folic Acid B12 Niacin Riboflavin Thiamin
Wheat 44 Unknown 1.4 52.8 3.96 6.38
Maize 28.6 - 57.3 Unknown 1.5 - 2.2 35.2 - 52.9 2.6 - 4.0 4.4 - 6.6
Rice 28.6 - 57.2 Unknown 1.54 - 3.08 35.2 - 70.4 4.4 - 8.8

Source: FFI database. See how we got this information.

Neural Tube Defects, Anemia Data, and Zinc Intake

Neural tube defects per 10,000 births1 % Anemia in non-pregnant women of reproductive age2 % Anemia in pre-school children3 % Population at risk of inadequate zinc intake4
5-9 12 6 5.0

1Source: Neural Tube Defect Ascertainment Project (2010). National Birth Defects Prevention: Birth Defects Surveillance, Research, and Prevention: http://www.nbdpn.org/current/2010pdf/NTD%20fact%20sheet%2001-10%20for%20website.pdf.

Note: This figure may not include pregnancy loss or terminations of pregnancies due to pre-natal diagnosis of a neural tube defect. With all folic acid interventions in place, the birth prevalence of neural tube defects would be about 6 per 10,000. Contact us at info@ffinetwork.org to see if information on neural tube birth defects is available on a city or regional level.

2Source: - WHO. The global prevalence of anemia in 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization: 2015.

Note: Anemia can be caused by many things. Fortifying flour and rice can reduce the risk of anemia caused by nutritional deficiencies. The classification of anemia as a public health problem, according to the World Health Organization, Global Prevalence of Anemia in 2011, is:

≤4.9% No public health problem
5.0-19.9% Mild public health problem
20.0-39.9% Moderate public health problem
≥40.0% Severe public health problem

3Source: - WHO. The global prevalence of anemia in 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization: 2015.

Note: Pre-school children are usually defined as ages 6-59 months.

4Source: - Wessells KR, Brown KH. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting. PloS One 2012; 7: e50568.

Note: Zinc is needed for optimal child health and physical growth and normal pregnancy outcomes. If the probability of inadequate zinc intake is greater than 25%, it is considered an elevated public health concern, according to Conclusions of the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG Interagency Meeting on Zinc Status Indicators.