Country Profile - Eswatini, the Kingdom of

Region: Africa

Population: 1,136,281

Percent of population in urban areas: 23.8

Source: Population figures from the United Nation Population Division

Grain Production, Imports, Exports (metric tons), and Availability (grams/capita/day)

  Domestic Production Grain Imports Grain Exports Flour Imports Flour Exports Available in food supply
Wheat 720 31,788 0 2,618 5 102
Maize 118,871 90,251 3,855 1,321 0 191
Rice 147 31,739 335 0 0 58

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations using 2013 data, the last year with all data available in March 2018

Notes: Rice production is paddy rice. Import and export figures include husked and milled rice.

Legislation, Milling Industry, and Fortification

  Legislation Number of industrial mills (>20 metric tons/day) % flour/rice produced in industrial mills % industrially milled flour/rice that is fortified
Wheat Voluntary 1 100 90
Maize None 1 0
Rice None 0 0

Source: FFI database. See how we got this information.

Nutrients Added Through Fortification (parts per million)

  Minerals B Vitamins Vitamin A
  Iron Type of Iron Zinc Folic Acid B12 Niacin Riboflavin Thiamin
Wheat 43 Electrolytic iron 20 1.5 31 2 3.6 2.97
Maize
Rice

Source: FFI database. See how we got this information.

Neural Tube Defects, Anemia Data, and Zinc Intake

Neural tube defects per 10,000 births1 % Anemia in non-pregnant women of reproductive age2 % Anemia in pre-school children3 % Population at risk of inadequate zinc intake4
23.1 28 44 18.3

1Source: March of Dimes. Global Report on Birth Defects-The Hidden Toll of Dying and Disabled Children. United States of America. 2006. [https://www.marchofdimes.org/global-report-on-birth-defects-the-hidden-toll-of-dying-and-disabled-children-full-report.pdf]

Note: This figure may not include pregnancy loss or terminations of pregnancies due to pre-natal diagnosis of a neural tube defect. With all folic acid interventions in place, the birth prevalence of neural tube defects would be about 6 per 10,000.

2Source: - World Health Organization. The global prevalence of anemia in 2011. Switzerland. 2015.

Note: Anemia can be caused by many things. Fortifying flour and rice can reduce the risk of anemia caused by nutritional deficiencies. The classification of anemia as a public health problem, according to the World Health Organization, Global Prevalence of Anemia in 2011, is:

≤4.9% No public health problem
5.0-19.9% Mild public health problem
20.0-39.9% Moderate public health problem
≥40.0% Severe public health problem

3Source: - World Health Organization. The global prevalence of anemia in 2011. Switzerland. 2015.

Note: Pre-school children are usually defined as ages 6-59 months.

4Source: - Wessells KR, Brown KH. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting. United States of America. 2012.

Note: Zinc is needed for optimal child health and physical growth and normal pregnancy outcomes. If the probability of inadequate zinc intake is greater than 25%, it is considered an elevated public health concern, according to Conclusions of the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG Interagency Meeting on Zinc Status Indicators.